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Expanding the Healthy Benefits of Red Wine
2022-12-02 17:09:17 来源：www.bvrcn.com 品牌价值网
Expanding the Healthy Benefits of Red Wine
Releasing the Silent and Pure Wine, Staying Away from the Sonorous Telling
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Returning to the Magical Effects of Red Wine
Cognition of the healthy effects of red wine：
Nietzsche said that the binary superposition of Dionysian spirit and Apollo spirit makes the western art mellow and long.
Since ancient times, wine has not only nourished many interesting souls, but also spawned countless artistic treasures. With the deepening of people's attention and research on it, along with the public's higher pursuit of a better life, people have a wider understanding of the healthy benefits of wine, and researchers from all over the world have carried out numerous studies to reveal the magical functions of wine. This article shall help improve people's cognition of the healthy effects of red wine.
Man has brewed wine for more than 8000 years, and wine is rich in nutrition. Cognition of health care function of red wine sets sail from here.
1. History of cognition of the health care function of red wine
Human beings have brewed wine for thousands of years. Xu Yinhu and others pointed out in their papers, human beings have a long history of brewing wine for more than 8000 years. Wine is rich in nutrition and is a worldwide beverage. As for the health care function of red wine, no matter in the East or the West, people's cognition is constantly refreshed by the long medical accumulation, and in recent years, the number of research papers on wine active substances in the medical field has also been increasing.
According to the earliest Chinese medicine classics Shennong Classic of Materia Medica records, "Grapes, governing damp arthralgia of bones and muscles, are beneficial to Qi and strength, can strengthen ambition and can be used as wines".
In the 15th century, according to Materia Medica of Southern Yunnan records, "Grapes can replenish Qi and blood, relax muscles and activate collaterals, and soak in wine".
According to Compendium of Materia Medica written by Li Shizhen in Ming Dynasty, “Wines...resident color and cold resistance”. It shows that wine has functions of enriching blood, caring skin, strengthening body, delaying aging and improving health.
1.1. Cognition of the healthy effects of wine in traditional Chinese medicine
In his paper, Yao Qianyuan briefly described the cognitive process of wine's health care functions in traditional Chinese medicine. According to the earliest Chinese medicine classics Shennong Classic of Materia Medica records, "Grapes, governing damp arthralgia of bones and muscles, are beneficial to Qi and strength, can strengthen ambition and can be used as wines". In the 15th century, according to Materia Medica of Southern Yunnan records, "Grapes can replenish Qi and blood, relax muscles and activate collaterals, and soak in wine". In Compendium of Materia Medica written by Li Shizhen in Ming Dynasty, the brewing methods and medicinal effects of wine are described in details, “Wines...resident color and cold resistance”. It shows that wine has functions of enriching blood, caring skin, strengthening body, delaying aging and improving health.
1.2. Cognition of the health care effects of wine in the West
In foreign countries, people's cognition of the effects of wine is constantly updated. According to an article from CNN, the cognition of wine in ancient Western countries has also gone through some stages.
The study found that, in 3000 BC, the ancient Egyptians used wine as medicine. A jar has been found in the tomb of King Scorpion I, and its history can be traced back to 3150 BC. The jar has traces of wine, sesame oil, coriander, sage and mint. This discovery shows that ancient Egyptians had dissolved herbs in wine to treat stomach diseases, herpes and other diseases.
According to historical records, the ancient Greeks believed that wine helped to promote digestion. Hippocrates, the "father of medicine" in the West, believes that wine can alleviate stomach diseases. He also points out that red wine helps digestion, and white wine helps to treat bladder diseases. He also found out the effects of wine in treating wounds.
In the Middle Ages, people discovered the efficacy of wine in psychological action. Arnaldus de Villa Nova, a doctor from the south of France, described in details how wine relieves sinusitis, and he was also the first person at that time to point out that wine can prevent Alzheimer's disease.
1.3. Cognition of the healthy effects of wine in modern medicine
As people are stepping into the modern society, with the great development of science and technology, great changes have also taken place in the their cognition of the world, and the cognition of the health care function of wine is also progressing.
In the 19th century, Louis Pasteur, the father of microbiology, said that "Wine is the most healthful and most hygienic of beverages". At that time, water was often contaminated by cholera and typhoid fever, and milk, as another healthy drink, might also become an accomplice of tuberculosis. This situation didn't change until new sterilization technology was discovered.
In the 1920s, people began to pay attention to the problem of alcoholism, and the reputation of spirits became worse and worse. Red wine was considered as a hygienic drink, and it was less harmful than white wine. All sectors of society put forward calls for moderate drinking.
In the early 1990s, the French paradox made headlines, and the public began to pay attention to the health care function of red wine. French doctors pointed out that in 1980s, France's smoking rate, hypertension prevalence rate and other risk factors were similar to those of the United States, Britain and other countries. But the death rate of heart disease in France is lower than that in these countries. Therefore, it is believed that the reason for this phenomenon is that French people drink a lot of wine, especially red wine, which can prevent heart disease.
In 1995, Danish researchers thought that drinking red wine could prolong life. A survey of 6,000 men and 7,000 women found that, as for people who drink three to five glasses of red wine a day, within 10 years, their mortality rate is 49% lower than others; People who drink the same amount of beer every day have the same mortality rate as others within 10 years; People who drink 3 ~ 5 cups of spirits every day have a 34% increase in mortality. In the following years, researchers began to pay attention to the physiological functions of resveratrol in wine.
In 2007, scientists discovered that red wine can prevent tooth decay. Studies have found that, whether it is red wine or white wine,
both can prevent the growth of streptococcus, while red wine is more effective than white wine, which may be caused by acids in it.
In 2013, the study found that, men who are drinking wine can increase sexual desire, but may reduce fertility. A study in 2013 showed that there is a component in red wine similar to estrogen, which can promote sperm reproduction. After taking it for a period of time, sperm flows more easily to male reproductive organs. A study in 2014 opposed frequent drinking, which found that men who drank more than five cups a week had less sperm and testosterone than non-drinkers. But another study found that people who drink moderately have better sexual desire than those who don't drink wine at all.
In 2015, a study found that, resveratrol in red wine may help treat Alzheimer's disease. Resveratrol may inhibit the accumulation of β-amyloid protein in Alzheimer's patients in human brain. However, there are still many questions about this study. The most important question is whether resveratrol can improve Alzheimer's disease.
The relationship between red wine and cancer has always been very complicated, but it improved in 2015. Studies have shown that for moderate drinkers, red wine can reduce the risk of prostate, lung cancer and colon cancer;For people who drink too much, it may increase the risk of cancers such as lung cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer and breast cancer.
2. Ingredients in wine
It is generally believed that the most important components in wine come from grapes, and because of the differences in fermentation methods, fermentation time and other factors, the contents of various components will be different. Wine contains more than 600 kinds of components, including sugar, protein, inorganic salts, trace elements, organic acids, pectin, various alcohols and vitamins, which are necessary for human growth and development.
2.1. Nutrients in wine
It is generally believed that, nutrients needed by human beings mainly include sugars, proteins, inorganic salts and so on, and most nutrients can be found in wine.
Amino acid is the basic unit of protein. There are 20 kinds of amino acids needed by human beings, among which 8 kinds of amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body and can only be ingested through food. They are called essential amino acids for human body. According to the data from Li Hua's Modern Wine Technology, wine contains various amino acids needed by human body, and the content of essential amino acids in wine is very close to that of amino acids in human blood.
Wine contains a variety of vitamins, mainly vitamin B (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12), in addition to vitamin C (0.1 ~ 0.15) mg/L, vitamin E, vitamin PP and vitamin H, etc. Among them, VE can accelerate the purification of cholesterol in blood and reduce its content; VB2, VB6 and VB12 can keep the cerebral blood cells active and prevent aging; VB3 can reduce blood pressure and improve fatigue in people with poor physical fitness; VB12 has preventive and therapeutic effects on liver cirrhosis; VC can induce cholesterol to cholic acid. However, this effect can only be brought into full play when proanthocyanidins exist. Red wine has higher vitamin content than white wine, which is mainly due to impregnation of grapes.
Grapes are rich in minerals, with the content of 0.3%-0.5%. Because wine is fermented in whole juice, most nutrients can enter wine, among which trace elements such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and selenium can be directly absorbed and utilized by human body. Zinc has an important relationship with the occurrence of cancer, which can be induced by zinc deficiency or excessive intake. However, the zinc content in grapes and wine is moderate, especially in red grapes and red wine, which is suitable for human needs. Selenium is an enhancer of human immune system, which plays a certain role in maintaining the normal function and operation of human blood. It has a good medical effect in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells caused by the decomposition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in vivo. According to the analysis of the nutritional composition of four kinds of wines in Beijing made by Institute of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, the results show that red wine is richer in zinc and selenium than white wine, which is more beneficial to health.
Other minerals in wine can also play a corresponding role. Iodine can prevent arterial aging and control blood pressure; Sulfur can improve liver function; Potassium can strengthen cerebrovascular, prevent aging and diuresis; Phosphorus and calcium can keep blood low in alkalinity.
In the process of wine brewing, the production of alcohol depends on the alcohol fermentation of yeast. After the alcohol fermentation, there are still a large number of yeast bacteria in the original wine. As time goes on, with the change of environmental conditions, most of the bacteria will autolyse. A large number of nutrients enter wine, which is why the vitamin content in wine is higher than that in grape juice, and it will also increase the content of protein, amino acids and minerals in wine.
2.2. Active substance in wine
In recent years, the active substance in wine has become the focus of research. Researchers have conducted in-depth research on the rich substances contained in wine, revealing its physiological functions, hoping to help human beings cope with various diseases and other issues. Among them, polyphenols are the most concerned substance.
According to the molecular structure of polyphenols, people classify them into different types, such as phenolic acids, anthocyanin glycosides, flavonols, flavanols, tannins and so on. Polyphenols in wine mainly come from grapes, so the content of various components in wine is greatly affected by grape species. Processing methods such as juice extraction and various chemical reactions during aging can also affect the content of various components in wine.
The main polyphenols in grape berries are shown in the following table.
Generally speaking, the total polyphenol content in red wine is higher than that in white wine, and with the aging of wine, its polyphenol content will further increase. The average phenolic content in typical white wines is about 250mg/L, but the content of some wines can be as high as 2000mg/L. The total content of phenols in red wine can reach 1000 ~ 4000mg/L. The longer the grape skin, pulp and seeds are fermented together, the ethanol produced in the fermentation will play the role of phenolic extraction medium, so that more phenols will be extracted into wine.
After introducing various polyphenols in wine, here is a brief introduction of the functions of various active substances.
Various polyphenols in wine are formed during wine brewing and aging, and affect the flavor and color of wine. The reaction that polyphenols in wine affect the color of wine is called auxiliary color reaction.Anthocyanin molecules and other molecules can protect red anthocyanin salt ions from being attacked by water molecules and increase chromaticity through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic reactions, which is called intermolecular auxiliary color reaction; The protection of anthocyanins through special conformation is called intramolecular cochromic effect, which usually refers to the interaction between aromatic acyl plane and anthocyanin closing salt ion plane in aromatic acylated anthocyanins; Anthocyanins with catechol or pyrogallol structure in B ring can interact with some metal ions (Mg2 +, Fe3 +, Al3 +) through coordination bonds to form a complex, and then produce intermolecular co-color effect with other co-pigments. These reactions are affected by a variety of factors including PH value, temperature, oxygen and ethanol amounts, natural phenols and their composition, especially sulfite concentrations.
2.3. Bioactivity of polyphenols in wine
Polyphenols in wine also have special biological activities.
Many epidemiological studies have shown that anthocyanin-rich diet has many benefits to human health, and has preventive and even therapeutic effects on many diseases. Anthocyanins may be the most effective component in wine in scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibiting oxidation of low density lipoprotein and inhibiting platelet agglutination. Although its content in blood is very small, anthocyanins can exert significant anti-atherosclerosis and antioxidant capacity. Anthocyanins in the body are partially metabolized into glucuronic acid, which can combine with a variety of harmful substances and be excreted through kidney urination with blood to play a detoxification role.
In red wine, the total concentration of flavanols is as high as 1 ~ 5g/L, in which proanthocyanidins account for the vast majority of flavanols, while the concentration of monomer flavan-3-ol is only between 40 ~ 120mg/L, and catechins are the main ones. The scavenging ability of hydrogen peroxide radicals is catechins > epicatechins > gallcatechins. In addition, gallate acylation can improve the activity.
Resveratrol can inhibit the activity of iNOS and decrease the gene expression and enzyme activity of nitric oxide synthase. This effect is related to the anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties of resveratrol. Quercetin can inhibit the production of NO in astrocyte line. Kim and others found that quercetin can inhibit inflammation in macrophage line RAW26417, but it is not realized by directly inhibiting iNOS enzyme activity.
Wine is also rich in phenolic acids, represented by salicylic acid. Its medical functions range from ordinary antipyretic and analgesic effects to cardiovascular health due to its fibrinolytic properties in blood, which may be achieved together with ethanol through different mechanisms. Fibrin formation plays an important role in platelet formation in atherosclerosis and in the etiology of oxidative damage to LDL. Salicylic acid is also an excellent antioxidant that can inhibit destructive hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, it can have anticoagulant factor performance by improving LDL oxidation. Salicylic acid can effectively resist some viral infections (such as endocarditis) and bacterial infections in human body. Salicylic acid and salicylic acid-like components in wine not only have certain protective effects against lung cancer, emphysema, respiratory tract infection and the increasing risks to smokers through their antioxidant effects, but also have been proved to have protective effects against common cold.
3. Health care function of wine
Above, we introduced various nutritional components and active components in wine, and then analyzed the health care function of wine from the perspective of various physiological functions of wine to human body.
3.1. Protective effect of wine on central nervous system injury
Wine can improve many kinds of central nervous system injuries, which is related to the existence of many components in wine, especially polyphenols. Wine can protect nerve cells, inhibit oxidative stress injury in brain, and delay or improve the occurrence and development of central related diseases.
At present, many experiments have confirmed that from different levels and models the protective effect of wine, especially red wine, on central nervous system stems from its antioxidant activity. The higher content of polyphenols catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, procyanidins, gallic acid and tyrosol in red wine decreased the production of reactive oxygen species, and increased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, which were related to the protein expression.
In terms of delaying neurodegenerative diseases, an epidemiological survey called PAQUID (Personnes Agees Quid) found that people who drink three to four glasses of wine every day have an 80% lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease after three years than those who drink less or no wine. Researchers believe that one of the reasons is that polyphenol active substance in wine, especially red wine, can increase antioxidant activity in the body.
In the prevention of stroke, epidemiological studies have shown that polyphenols derived from red wine can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease because of their characteristics of preventing platelet aggregation, resisting oxidation and scavenging free radicals. In addition, red wine polyphenols can also cause vasodilation by regulating the production of nitric oxide in vascular endothelium. Therefore, it can also protect the center pivot from ischemic injury.
In improving toxic brain damage, studies have confirmed that although wine, especially red wine, contains ethanol, wine has a protective effect on neurotoxicity caused by excessive intake of ethanol, because it also contains polyphenols with antioxidant activity. A study suggests that long-term intake of red wine can improve the oxidative stress state in rat brain, reduce the attack of free radicals on neurons, and then improve the damage of hippocampal spatial discrimination learning and memory ability caused by ethanol.
3.2. Health care function of red wine in preventing and treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
The latest research in the United States found that grape skin and core contain a large number of flavonoids and powerful antioxidant resveratrol, which can prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. They have the thrombolytic and anti-blood agglutination effects of aspirin, and can prevent ischemic stroke. Drinking three glasses of purple wine every day can reduce platelet aggregation by 40%. Grape skin can lower cholesterol and blood sugar, and has anti-cancer effect.
A study on the influence of wine on blood circulation shows that the antioxidant's antioxidant capacity is obviously improved after drinking red wine. Although wine had little effect on the harmful low-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, the healthy high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content increased.
Wine, especially red wine, is the main alcoholic beverage in France and Mediterranean countries where the mortality rate of cardiac vascular diseases is extremely low. According to a report, a large number of studies have shown that the relationship between mortality and wine intake per person in 27 Western countries is as follows. First, it is about an appropriate intake, which can reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease; The second is the discovery that a substance naturally occurring in wine has a great influence on lipid metabolism. When grapes are ripe, they can produce a compound called resveretrol, which is used to resist the erosion of grains. After fermentation, the resveretrol of wine will increase to the level of pharmacological effect. When resveretrol in human body lowers total cholesterol, it seems to increase the value of HDL high density lipoprotein; A third factor may explain wine's unique heart-protecting effect, which involves reducing the "platelet adhesion effect”.
3.3. Anti-aging effect of wine
According to Seattle-based plastic surgeon Doc. Richard A. Baxter, author of Wine Keeps You Young, one daily glass of wine has anti-aging effects, and its mechanism is related to antioxidant components in wine. Antioxidants absorb free radicals that play a role in aging and age-related diseases. Compared with grape juice, wine contains high concentrations of antioxidants called polyphenols, including resveratrol, etc. In wine, grape skins and seeds participate in the fermentation process, so wine is rich in polyphenols, which can play an active role in anti-aging.
3.4. Influence of wine on sensory system
According to Britain’s Daily Mail, a new study from the US published in Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery found that red wine also has the effect of preventing hearing loss. It is believed that resveratrol, an effective chemical in red wine, plays a role.
Dr. Michael Seidman, who led the new study, said the new study focused on resveratrol and its effects on the body's response to injury. Physical injury is thought to be the cause of many health problems including Alzheimer's disease, cancer, aging and hearing loss. Resveratrol is a potent chemical that prevents inflammation, slows aging and cognitive (brain function) and hearing loss processes.
A new study from the United States found that drinking wine can prevent vision loss. Researchers have found that resveratrol, found in grapes and other fruits, protects eye blood vessels from damage caused by aging. Resveratrol can resist abnormal vascular hyperplasia (causing damaged or variant blood vessels), which is related to cancer, heart disease and eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.
St. Louis Huala Apat, a leader in LaKinde research at School of Medicine, Washington University, said that studies have proved that resveratrol can directly inhibit the growth of abnormal blood vessels in and out of the eye. Resveratrol can prevent bacterial and fungal infections. It was found that the content of resveratrol in grape skin was particularly high.
To sum up, wine is the essence of brewing condensed in the long history of human beings, and human cognition of wine function has undergone new changes with the development of the times, from drinking enjoyment to truly in-depth study of the biological activities of various components in wine and its benefits to human health.
Wine is rich in nutrients and various active substances. Each component has a positive role in promoting various physiological function of human body. By combing the literature, this paper sorts out its effects on central nervous system, cardiovascular system, anti-aging and sensory system. Most studies focus on the antioxidant activity of polyphenols and their important role in eliminating free radicals to protect various organs and tissues from damage.
We believe that the research on wine will continue and new results will be revealed. Moderate drinking of red wine has a very positive effect on health.